Enable HTTPS on your Web Serve

HTTP secured, that is what we commonly hear about https. What does it brings in … A secure communication for the client as well as an assurance that the server is actually what it claims to be.  HTTPs is not generally a protocol by itself, it is actually layering http upon SSL, simplly encrypting the http traffic.

In this post, I will be explaining how to enable https on an apache web server running on a linux host. I am expecting that you already have apache and SSL configured in your system. So lets begin….

1.Activate SSL module

Apache is shipped with SSL module disabled. Hence we have to manually enable it. The following command can be used to enable SSL in apache.

sudo a2enmod ssl

2.Create a self signed SSL Certificate

sudo openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 365 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout /etc/apache2/ssl/apache.key -out /etc/apache2/ssl/apache.crt

The x509 command is a multi purpose certificate utility. It can be used to display certificate information, convert certificates to various forms, sign certificate requests like a “mini CA” or edit certificate trust settings.

-nodes is used to specifie no passphrase should be used. If you use a passphrase, you will have to enter it whenever you restart your server.

3.Update SSL config file


sudo vim /etc/apache2/sites-available/default

Make the following modifications in the file

  • Change the port on the virtual host to 443
    <VirtualHost *:443>
  • Add  your server name  below the Server Admin email
    ServerName localhost:443
  • Replace localhost with the domain name, if a domain name was given in “Common Name” above
  • Add SSL configurations to the file
    SSLEngine on
    SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl/apache.crt
    SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache2/ssl/apache.key

4. Activate the new Virtual Host

sudo a2ensite default

Restart apache for the changes to take effect

sudo  /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

That is it…. HTTPS is configured in your web server with a self signed certificate.

NB:- It is always preferable to get the certificate signed by an authorized CA. Some browsers deny access for untrusted certificates.


Nmap Security Scanner


Network Mapped (Nmap) is a network scanning and host detection tool that is very useful during several steps of penetration testing. Nmap is not limited to merely gathering information and enumeration, but it is also powerful utility that can be used as a vulnerability detector or a security scanner. So Nmap is a multipurpose tool, and it can be run on many different operating systems including Windows, Linux, BSD, and Mac. Nmap is a very powerful utility that can be used to:

  • Detect the live host on the network (host discovery)
  • Detect the open ports on the host (port discovery or enumeration)
  • Detect the software and the version to the respective port (service discovery)
  • Detect the operating system, hardware address, and the software version
  • Detect the vulnerability and security holes (Nmap scripts)

Nmap is a very common tool, and it is available for both the command line interface and the graphical user interface.

I this post, I will show you how to use Nmap for port scanning and OS fingerprinting purposes.

Nmap Port Scannig

$ nmap target

Here target can be host URL/IP or network address(for scanning the entire subnet).
You can also add multiple targets to Namp (target1 target2 target3 …). There are a bundle of options for port scanning which are not discussed in this post. You can refer man pages for more details.

Nmap OS Fingerprinting

OS fingerprinting is one of the best known features of Nmap. It sends a series of TCP and UDP packets to the host and examines the reply to from the host. It compares the responses on it nmap-os-db database of more than 2500 OS fingerprints and displays the fingerprint of the OS that matches. This is possible only if at least one open port and one closed port is found.

You can use the following command to scan the fingerprint of the target OS.

$ namp -O target

You should have administrative rights to perform the above tasks.

My sample OS Fingerprint is shown

OS Fingerprint

Chat using Netcat

This post is regarding Netcat. Netcat is a networking service for managing network connections using TCP or UDP. It is often reffered to as the Swiss Knife TCP/IP. Another modern implementation of Netcat is Nmap’s Ncat. Although it comes with added features with nmap’s mature network libraries, it lacks some reverse compatibility issues with netcat.

Netcat is a tool that may enables us to gain control over the network with its arsenal of features. Here I am going to demonstrate how to establish a simple chat session using netcat.
As usual i am using Ubuntu 12.04. I comes enabled with the openBSD version of netcat. This may not support all the commands you may find on the net. You can change it to traditional version using the following command

$ update-alternatives --config nc

Step 1: Start Listening

This chat session works as a client-server model. We need to start listening to a port from the server. The command for start listening is

$ nc -l -p  <port_number>

Step 2:  Start Chatting

Any client can connect to this server and start chatting. For connecting the have to use nc command with the IP and port number to which the server is listening.

$ nc <server_ip> <server_port>

All done…. Now you can start chatting.

Secure Communication using SSH

This time I was checking out OpenSSH. It is a network protocol which uses asymmetric key cryptography to provide secure data communication over an unsecured network. There is also a network protocol for “file transfer” SCP(Secure Copy) based on SSH. It uses SSH for data transfer and authentication ensuring authenticity and confidentiality of data.
In this post, I would like to explain how to connect to a remote system using SSH, transfer files securely and how to get password less access to a remote server.

Installing and Connecting to a remote server

I most Linux distros are shipped with only SSH-Client installed. If you would like to copy files  from your system from a remote system, you will have to install SSH-Server. If not, SSH-Client will be just fine.
To install SSH-Server, you can use the following command.

sudo apt-get install openssh-server

To connect to a remote server, the following command should work fine.

ssh <user>@<server IP/URL>

The above command will prompt for a password for the specific user at the server. Once you enter the correct password, you will get access to the shell of that user in the remote server. Now you can do whatever operations you like on the remote server, under the privilege of the user.

Copy using SCP

As you have seen, you can get access to a remote system using SSH. But SSH does not support file transfer. For that purpose, we use SCP. The command for transffering file from/to a remote server is as follows.

  • To copy a file to a remote host.
    scp <local file path> <usre>@<remote host IP/URL>:<remote location>
  • To copy a file from a remote host
    scp <user>@<remote host IP/URL>:<remote location> <local location>

Password less entry to an SSH Server

For enabling our system at achieve password less entry to a remote server using SSH, we use a public-private key pair. So first we have to generate a key pair. The following command helps you in creating a key pair


Here I am using RSA algorithm to generate my key pair. ssh-keygen command supports DSA & ECDSA. It will ask you for the passphrase(private key) and then generate the public key file.

Now we have to copy this public key to the remote host. For that we use the following command.

ssh-copy-id -i <public key filename> <user>@<remote host IP>

This will copy your key file to ~/.ssh/authorized_keys on the remote server.Now when you try to connect to the remote host using SSH, it will ask for the password only for the first time. njoy….

Key-pair Generation, Secure Messaging & Message Signing

This time i am going to blog about public key generation, sending encrypted messages over the internet and using key-pairs for signing documents.

I used GNU Privacy Guard (GPG)  for this purpose. Normally GPG come pre installed with most Linux distros. So lets generate a strong public-private key-pair and see what all can be done with these keys.

Public Private Key-pair Generation

1. Generating Key-Pair

gpg --gen-key

Once you give the above command, the system will ask you for the following details.

  • What kind of key-pair do you want.
  • Length of key
  • Life span of key
  • Name
  • Mail id
  • Comment
  • Passphrase(private key)

Once you have entered all the above details, the system will be generating your public key in asc format.

2. You can add image to your public key to make it

gpg --edit-key <key-id>
gpg> addphoto

This will ask for a jpeg image.

3. Exporting Public key
You can export your public key to a file using the following command.

gpg --armor --export <mail-id> <filename>.gpg

4. Publish your public key

gpg --send-keys <key-id>  --keyserver <keyserver-name>

5. Sign your key
You can make others to sign your public key to authenticate the credibility of your key. Others can use the following commands to download your key from keyserver and sign it. You may publish your signed public key on key-servers or on the internet for others to send encrypted messages to you

gpg --recv-keys <key-id>
gpg --sign-key <key-id>

The above steps can be used to generate a strong key pair for yourself.

Secure Messaging

Now lets see how we can establish a secure communication between using the key-pairs.

1. Encrypt the message
If someone wants to send you a secure message, they can get your public key from the keyserver using –recv-key command. Then create a message and save it in a file. Use the following command to encrypt your message.

gpg --recipient <recipient-mail-id> --armor --encrypt <message-file>

This will generate a file .asc. This is the encrypted message. They can mail it to you.

2. Decrypt your message
You can use the following command to decrypt the message using your private key.

gpg --output <messagefile> --decrypt <encrypted-message-file>.asc

Message Signing

Finally, lets check out how we can sign a message file using our key-pairs. The following command can be used to sign your file.

gpg --clearsign <filename>